Category Archives: Culture

Thai Nicknames and their Meanings

Thai Links

000 Spanish Syllables Thai Version

001a Spanish Basic Phrases Thai Version

001b Spanish Basic Phrases Thai Version

003 Spanish Alphabet Thai Version

008 Spanish Numbers Ordinals Thai Version

17 Types of Thai Smiles

A Great Statue to Honor a Great Man

American versus Thai Culture

Pay for the Thai Canal with an Island Next to Bangkok!

Thai Colors of the Day

Thai Nicknames and their Meanings

Thailand Do’s and Don’ts

The King of Thailand – Eight Areas of Accomplishment

Am I Kitsune?

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Green Tea and Jam

Why green tea? Green tea doesn’t actively detox toxins all on its own, but it’s packed with natural polyphenols that support the body’s normal detox system. Polyphenols work in two ways: they have a direct impact on your liver, the body’s major detox organ, and they’re antioxidants that fight free radicals. Free radicals are unstable. Free radicals should be neutralized before they damage healthy cells.

Why add jam to green tea? Adding jam to your black tea is generally associated with Russian tea culture. However, green tea is becoming more popular in Russia. I found green tea relatively tasteless compared to black tea. However, green tea in my opinion mixes better with jam than black tea. Green tea needs the flavoring more than black tea. Jam gives the green tea flavor a resonance and complexity with just a hint of an oakey afterbirth.

Some of the flavors I prefer are black berries, orange marmalade, raspberry. You can mix jams as well. Stalin liked Georgian pine cone jam and orange marmalade in his tea. Pine cone jam and dust are very beneficial for your bronchial system. Pine cone also strengthens the immune system. In theory, you get vitamin C from the Orange marmalade but the vitamins from fruits in jams are negligible compared to whole fruit.

Reportedly, Grigori Rasputin had black tea with gooseberry and cloudberry jam in his black tea on the day he was assassinated. This mixture of jam is considered bad luck by man Russians. However, young Russians are largely ignorant of this tea taboo.

I have had good luck with Lipton teas my whole life and was gratified to find they turn out a green tea. Lipton tea bags are convenient and often a price that is low than loose tea of a lower quality. Lipton is the brand I trust for tea!

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The Purple Werefox Philosophizes

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Am I Kitsune?

Genealogical DNA Test of Hugh Fox III

The following is an attempt to explain my 23andMe profile. My genetic heritage is 74% European. The 35% Northwestern European is probably from my father’s side. My paternal grandfather’s father and mother came to the US from Ireland. My paternal grandmother’s father and mother came to the US from Czechoslovakia so that probably explains the 29.9% Southern European. My mother’s ancestry includes Spanish, Italian and even Hungarian. That probably explains the bits and pieces that are from all over Europe. However, my mother’s family has always insisted there is some “Huanco” blood i.e. Native Americans from the area of Huanco in Peru. The story goes that one of my Peruvian Spanish ancestors married a Native American to get her land as was allowed then under Spanish law unlike English law. The Huanco story would explain the 20.4% that is Native American. 2.9% of my ancestry is unassigned.

I frankly hope that I have alien DNA as in aliens from other planets! Pre-Columbian Peru is after all the most prominent site of ancient astronauts. That would explain my Hyperkinesic Perception (HKP). LOL! I occasionally have interesting dreams and am pretty good at figuring out body language but I wouldn’t go so far as to say I have a superpower!

In general, I support research that would look for correlations between unassigned DNA and cognitions that manifest themselves observationally as psychic powers. In my article, A Survey of Psychic Powers Found in Fiction and History, I found precognition is the most common psychic power in history. I posit that precognition is an ability to process huge amounts of information and then create output in the form of dreams and/or visions.   I have come to the conclusion there are no psychic powers as such but rather some human beings have cognitions that mimic psychic powers. However, I am sad to say that I suspect unassigned DNA is not caused by extraterrestrials but due to more mundane factors.

BBC has an interesting discussion that alien unassigned DNA is due to gene-swapping with other terrestrial species as the donors. Crisp et al, have found 145 alien genes in the human genome! Crisp et al also state that most gene-swapping is due to bacteria and protists. As far as I know no one has speculated what macro factors would affect gene-swapping.

I have a pet theory of my own. Warmer climates cause an increase in insect populations and the spread of diseases via insects. Warm water has more bacteria than freezing water. Drinking from a running river in Norway in the winter is probably a safe bet. Drinking water from a running river in the tropics is one way to lose a lot of weight quickly! If a population is exposed  to more bacteria via various mechanisms then perhaps there will be more gene swapping than in a population exposed to less bacteria. Warmer climate indirectly causes more gene swapping. In particular, could a hot climate in the Amazon cause more gene-swapping among the inhabitants over thousands of years than elsewhere? Huanco is not that far from the Peruvian Amazon.

Furthermore, shamanic practices, such as those practiced in the Peruvian Amazon, may have thrived because there were more persons that were predisposed to have the cognitions a shaman needs to be successful. Perhaps there is more alien DNA among Africans not due to sampling but because of more gene swapping due to the tropical climate of Africa? I have never been to Africa but have had friends that have traveled there and feel there is almost a psychic connection to the land and people. You don’t really hear this sort of thing when people discuss let us say Finland.

On a personal, note I am very intuitive and one thing an intuitive person can do is sense who is and who is not intuitive. I have been all over the world and from first-hand experience I don’t think so called “intuition”, which is the poor cousin of psychic powers, is equal among all human groups. Some human groups seem to better at the intuition game than others regardless of causation. Overall, is there any relationship between DNA due to terrestrial gene-swapping and cognition outliers?

I admit this is all wild speculation!

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Am I Kitsune?

Bicultural Identity in Star Trek Characters

 

Introduction

My mother was born in Lima, Peru and later became a US citizen. My father was a third generation American. I self-identify as a Peruvian American. I consider myself bicultural. I had spent 4th and 5th grade in Venezuelan schools were even the English teachers didn’t know English. I was aware by this time that the fact that I could speak, read and write Spanish and knew who Simon Bolivar was what made me different from my peers in the US. I ironically watched my first episode of Star Trek after returning from Venezuela to the United States when I was ten on my first night in the US. I felt an instant kinship towards Spock but at ten could not intellectualize that we had a bicultural identity as a commonality. I have lived in ten countries for a period 26 years. I have taught course work on cross-cultural communication. I think my bilingual/bicultural heritage is a key factor in explaining why I thrive in international situations. This article will explore the permutations of bicultural identity in Star Trek characters.

1) Spock

 

Spock has a human mother and a Vulcan father, Sarek. The biological impossibility of two species from different planets having offspring via normal coitus is not explored in Star Trek TOS but is explained in the novel Spock’s World. Spock is product of Vulcan genetic engineering. Vulcans deal with emotion through extreme repression. There is a suggestion that emotion for a Vulcan is like alcohol for an alcoholic. Vulcans cannot handle a little emotion. A little emotion opens the flood gates and Vulcans are soon out of control. So extreme repression may make sense for Vulcans. The problem is that Spock is only half Vulcan and thus appears to have emotional needs that are at odds with his desire to be logical. Anyone watching the series and movies realizes that Spock is NOT logical but is trying to be logical and watching him struggle with his inner demons is interesting because the actor playing Spock, Leonard Nimoy, does this so well. Spock’s bicultural identity is central to his character.

2) Data

 

Does Data belong on this list? Captain Picard tells Data that he is a “culture of one” that is no less valid than a culture of billions in the episode Birthright.  Data is a culture of one in a culture of humans. Also, strictly speaking, Data is also not alone as an android. Lore is an android made before Data. I think Data’s bicultural identity rather than the usual robot trying to become a human plot line is what makes Data interesting. Captain Picard defends Data’s right to self-determination in The Measure of a Man when a scientist in Starfleet wants to dismantle Data. Data in turn can become more or less human by having an emotion chip installed.

However, like Vulcans, Data doesn’t seem able to handle a little emotion and loses control when the chip is installed. Data’s “brother” Lore was the first android built and emotion seems to have turned him into a villain. Data even has a daughter of sorts named Lal in the episode The Offspring. Lal dies due to cascade failure which is more or less the robotic equivalent of nervous breakdown and in the case of robots apparently leads to death. Emotions can literally kill androids and that is not the case with Vulcans.

Some of the same territory that was explored with Spock, reason versus emotion is explored again with Data. The difference is that Vulcans can have emotion but choose not to. Data can’t have emotion unless he uses a potentially dangerous emotion chip. This overlap of themes is explored in Unification. Spock informs Data that Data is more or less what Vulcans aspire to be. Same plot device but a slightly different take on the plot device.

3) Deanna Troi

 

Deanna Troi has a Betazoid mother, Lwaxana Troi, and a human father. Betazoids are telepaths. Deanna is only an empath. Deanna can sense the emotions of humans but not read minds. Lwaxana, the mom, likes to wander around the nude, and chase men. Deanna’s human side has problems with her mother’s colorful ways but the plot device most associated with Deanna is her telepathic powers. Deanna may only be an empath but this does not stop her from being the damsel in distress due to telepathic attacks from full telepaths most notably in Clues, and Violations. Deanna is certainly dressed for the part and in most of the series shows a bit of cleavage. Deanna also has big black eyes due to her Betazoid heritage. Deanna’s bicultural identity is less important than playing the role of a buxom damsel in distress.

4) Worf

 

Worf’s Klingon parents were killed by the Romulans and was raised by human parents on a human colony. Worf was around seven at the time. Despite being raised by humans, Worf did not assimilate and retained his Klingon cultural identity. As a Starfleet officer Worf wore a Klingon ceremonial sash.   However, one was to assume that Worf did acculturate and his successful graduation from Starfleet Academy is proof of this. Initially Worf has an idealized view of Klingon culture. Worf thinks Klingons value honor over anything and is shocked that actually Klingons spout honor but pursue realpolitik.

In particular, Worf’s agrees to let his dead father accept the dishonor of a treasonous relationship with the Romulans rather than name the true culprits, the powerful Duras family in Sins of the Father. Exposing the truth would lead to civil war. Political expediency is more important than honor. When the embodiment of Klingon honor, Kahless returns and is exposed as a clone not the true Kahless, Worf again chooses expediency over honor in Rightful Heir. The false Kahless will act as the titular head of the Klingon Empire while real power will stay in the hands of Gowron. Gaining power and retaining order is more important to Klingons than ideals. This is something the viewers relate to.

When I was seven I thought President John F. Kennedy was a hero and cried when I heard he was assassinated while I was in elementary school. I later found out about the Bay of Pigs, Kennedy’s affairs, and his drug use. We have an idealized version of our national identity as youths which becomes more “realistic” over time. Worf’s bicultural identity is not the central conflict of the character but instead the central conflict is Worf’s realization that honor must be tempered by pragmatism.

5) B’Elanna Torres

 

Torres has a Klingon mother and a human father. Torres rejects her Klingon heritage to a great extent. However, she seems to have some anger management problems due to that heritage at the genetic level. Torres is split into a full-blooded human and a full-blooded Klingon in Faces. The Klingon Torres ends up saving the human Torres. The lesson of the Faces episode is that her Klingon side is not a deficit but a plus that gives her strength, courage and grit.

In Barge of the Dead, Torres has a near death experience and meets her Klingon mother in Klingon hell. The mother of Torres  is in hell because Torres has rejected her Klingon heritage. In the end, Torres is reconciled with her Klingon heritage. Torres is the opposite of Worf. Worf embraces his Klingon identity while Torres rejects her Klingon heritage. In both cases, their bicultural identity is a part of what defines the character.

6) Seven of Nine

 

Seven of Nine provides a third person view of the human condition like Spock and Data (Poe, 2001). Seven of Nine explores the pros and cons of individualism versus collectivism. Human cultures do not neatly divide into logical versus emotional cultures. Perhaps cultures can be described as being warm versus cold and having different forms of emotional expression. The Spock/Data cultural dichotomy is very artificial. However, some societies are more collectivist than others and this is dealt with empirically by Hofstede.

The Borg have taken collectivism to a whole other level with their technology. Individuals are forcibly assimilated into a hive mind. This seems to be terrible. However, when Seven of Nine is forcibly cut off from the Borg hive mind she finds many disadvantages to the human condition. As a drone you have no fear or doubt, have purpose and do not experience loneliness. The hive mind Borg can do things a collection of individuals could never do regardless of teamwork. Seven of Nine makes a plausible argument that in many ways the Borg condition is superior to the human condition.

Merged humans are a topic of science fiction that is increasingly relevant as the internet expands. Is something like the Borg a possible future for humanity? Humanity faces extinction due to nuclear war, resource depletion and global warming. A merged humanity might be able to face these challenges.

There is a bit of a dominatrix in the Seven of Nine character. In some versions Seven of Nine does have a corset under her skin-tight costume and she is wearing four-inch heels. As a Borg, Seven of Nine has superhuman strength and intelligence. Seven of Nine does act in a domineering manner with fellow crew.  Regardless of the obvious sexuality of Seven of Nine, her bicultural identity is a major part of her character.

7) Michael Burnham


 

 

 

 

 

 

Michael Burnham is the step sister of Spock! Michael was orphaned when Klingons attacked a Federation outpost and killed her parents. Michael was adopted by Sarek and raised as a Vulcan. While Spock is biologically a hybrid, Michael is genetically 100% human. I find the character of Michael Burnham implausible. I have a master’s in Educational Psychology and pretty much all research available shows extreme repression of emotions causes problems. Michael would have extreme feelings of loss due to the deaths of her parents and Sarek would be the last thing Michael would need. Michael would thrive in a loving household and be severely damaged in a cold Vulcan household. The adoption of Michael appears to be an experiment of sorts by Sarek. I cannot imagine the enlightened Federation allowing such a cruel experiment to go forward. However, I can accept an implausible character but not a boring one.

Michael is very Vulcan and logical in the first episode of the series and then reverts to being a human who happened to pick up some interesting Vulcan skills like Vulcan martial arts and limited telepathy while growing up. On the other hand, Michael is a rounded character not because of her bicultural identity but because she is a mutineer! The events and her personal history make her mutiny totally plausible and we have the first Star Trek protagonist who is an anti-hero!

8) Voq / Ash Tyler

 

Voq is a Klingon who undergoes surgery to pose as the human Tyler, chief of security for the USS Discovery. Voq’s surgery was extensive and painful surgery. The viewer infers that Voq was a great warrior to volunteer and withstand such surgery for the Klingon cause. Voq is a hero from a Klingon point of view while being a monster from a human point of view. Voq has human body parts on the outside and Klingon body parts on the inside and therefore must be considered a physical hybrid. Tyler, the human identity, is at first unaware of his Klingon identity. Tyler as Voq has killed the ship’s doctor secretly but Tyler remains unaware of this act until Episode 11, “The Wolf Inside” when Tyler becomes aware of the existence of Voq inside.

The Tyler side of Voq is suffering from extreme bicultural identity crisis! Tyler is guilt-ridden about the things that Voq has done! Voq/Ash Tyler is a Doctor Jekyll/Mister Hyde type character. Tyler is playing the part of the guilt-ridden Doctor Jekyll. Voq is Mister Hyde. As in the case of Mister Hyde, Voq has no guilt about his “terrible” actions.

Other bicultural Star Trek characters suffer from psychological distress while trying to integrate their bicultural backgrounds but the distress is a temporary challenge rather than a serious ongoing identity crisis.  For example, Spock cries like a human in “The Naked Time” under the influence of some sort of drug that lowers inhibitions. Spock’s crisis is miniscule and fleeting compared to that of Voq/Ash Tyler.

The 15th episode and last episode of season one of the Discovery series, establishes that the Orion Syndicate, a criminal organization, has an outpost on Qo’noS, the home world of the Klingons. The Klingons have a pragmatic relationship with the Orions. A human that has both human and Klingon skill sets could find a place at the Orion Syndicate outpost. Even if that outpost is more or less the ghetto of the Star Trek universe.

Ultimately Tyler’s Klingon skill set helps save the Federation. Due to his redemptive actions, Tyler is allowed to go his own way at the Orion Outpost by Michael. Michael was/is in love with Tyler. Sarek points out the irony that Michael hates Klingons for killing her parents but ends up falling in love with a Klingon!

Could the fact that they shared a bicultural identity be one reason Michael and Tyler were attracted to each other in the first place? I personally find a kinship with other persons with a bicultural background. Michael is an example of integrative, positive Bicultural Identity. Tyler is the dark “mirror” image of Michael’s Bicultural Identity. One of the lessons of the first season of the Discovery series is that you don’t have to go to a mirror universe, as the Discovery does, to find dark mirrors! The larger question I would like to ask is can our soul mates not just be mirrors as commonly conceived but dark mirrors?

Conclusion

Bicultural identity is a central part of the Star Trek universe. Bicultural identity allows a third person view of the human condition.  The only Star Trek series without a bicultural character was Star Trek: Enterprise. Star Trek: Enterprise was by far the least successful series of the Star Trek franchise and the lack of a bicultural character may be one the reasons for the poor reception of the series.  The table below summarizes the findings of this article.

References

“Stephen Poe, Star Trek Author”. Star Trek.com. April 2, 1998. Archived from the original on October 7, 2001. Retrieved September 5, 2014.

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Am I Kitsune?

 

Asian Treats YouTube Channel

Are you interested in Asian snacks?  Of course you are!  Below are two video from the new YouTube channel dealing with this subject.

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Orange Werefox Thailand Toy Expo 2016

Orange Werefox Thailand Toy Expo 2016 1

The Orange Werefox continues his search for the perfect pop culture icon that will save the future. Last week the Orange Werefox went to the Bangkok Comic Con 2016. This week he searched the Thailand Toy Expo 2016.

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Orange Werefox Plays HeroClix in Bangkok

HeroClix in Bangkok 1 HeroClix in Bangkok 2

HeroClix is a miniatures game that uses familiar Marvel and DC superheroes that can be organized into war bands rather than armies to fight each other. I am not an expert in the area of miniatures but do have some experience with Dungeons and Dragons miniatures.  One aspect of HeroClix that I like over Dungeons and Dragons miniatures, is the ability to adjust the difficulty level of play very easily.

HeroClix is suitable for children as young as ten, although the recommended age is 14. I say this because HeroClix uniquely has a dial that vastly simplifies game play and greatly lessens the amount of arithmetic associated with miniatures. Younger players can play just using the dial!  This dial option does exist for other mini games. However, I suspect even children will soon want to use the superpowers that are printed on a card. The use of superpowers on the card makes the game much more challenging. Finally, figures have team abilities which add one more layer of complexity but many adult players skip this part of the game since the team abilities may not have a big impact on the outcome of the game but experts do use the team ability to get that little extra edge.

You can buy HeroClix figures online but what is the fun in that? There is only one brick and mortar store in Thailand that sells HeroClix supplies and that is Battlefield Bangkok.  The store has great vibe and I felt right at home.  I do want to mention that Battlefield Bangkok has many other games besides HeroClix.

The best way to learn HeroClix is to play and there are regulars, such as Thanarat Thunmikapong above, at Battlefield Bangkok that helped me organize a war band with his own figurines and taught me the game as I played. Thanarat really, really knows HeroClix!  I am a rank beginner but I can already see there are some subtleties to the game.  Thanarat used Spider-Man’s powers and especially spider-sense with great effect.  If you read this article and decide to visit Battlefield Bangkok then make sure to mention that the Orange Werefox sent you!

The very important 2014 HeroClix Powers and Abilities Card has been translated from English into Thai by Nakorn Srisomwongs and his document is available for download at my Scribd account thanks to his generosity.

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Clothes

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Clothes Pyramid Resized

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs explains human behavior by positing there is a hierarchy of needs and that we deal with more basic needs before moving on to the next set of needs. Clothes serve a multitude of needs and this article will analyze how clothes satisfy these needs.

Physiological

Humans have the basic need of not being too cold or too hot. Clothing protects us from the elements. This is clothing’s original purpose. Clothes augment our basic need for shelter. This need is met pretty easily and in an industrialized culture with ubiquitous air conditioning and heating, other needs that are higher up the hierarchy are more important. However, when the zombies take over then gear that fulfills this basic will become more important and modern technology allows for clothes that can protect us in ways our ancestors could never have imagined. Outdoor clothes that are outrageously expensive protect us from the elements but also allow us to get more respect and handle our esteem needs. The hunter buying clothes at Walmart is probably looking for value. The person shopping for outdoor gear at the North Face may actually be more motivated by esteem needs than physiological needs. I deal with this subject at BEST Zombie Gear by Category.

Safety

Human have the need to feel safe. Clothes can protect us from the elements but other humans are generally far more dangerous. The first thing early humans figure out is that if someone tries to bash your head in then a helmet is probably a good idea. The arms race to create more effective body armor continues to this day. Wearing militaristic clothing in a safe developed country may actually be a way to meet belongingness needs. Wearing expensive border line body armor type clothing in a safe country is probably a way to meet esteem needs.

Love/Belonging

Humans have the need to be loved and to belong to a social group. Clothing can be an expression of love and the most obvious expression of love of this sort is jewelry. Uniforms are top down expressions of belonging. Fashion tribes are overtly down top expressions of belongingness. Gang wear may be forced on members and be top down or be more like a fashion tribe depending on the gang.

Esteem

Humans want respect and status. Clothes can become totally removed from their original physiological function and become means of garnering respect. Clothes can become a form of conspicuous consumption that confers respect and status to the wearer. High fashion serves esteem needs and the more expensive and impractical the better!

Self-Actualization

The person is focused on realizing their potential and therefore comes up with a system to spend less time worrying about fashion. Many productive people wear the same set of clothing every day in order to be more productive. The foremost example was Steve Jobs who wore his signature black turtleneck with jeans and sneakers every single day. The outfit formula is one way to spend less time on clothes and more time on more important endeavors.

You can also download my autobiography of my struggle with a bipolar condition on  Am I Kitsune on my Google Drive.

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16 Basic Desires: China versus US

16 Types of Motivation and Culture Table Resized

16 Basic Desires  

I have been teaching in Asia at the college level for the last sixteen years. This semester just like every semester I reflected that my Thai students have very different motivations than other students I have had including American and Chinese students. I didn’t really find anything on the internet that was useful directly but I did run into one general theory of motivation that I think is detailed enough to be useful in the classroom and with adaptation the English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom.

Professor Steven Reiss has proposed a theory that found 16 basic desires that guide nearly all human behavior. The focus of research on motivation in the ESL classroom is on intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation.   Lile provides a good overview of the application of intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation in the classroom as well as some practical suggestions.

My observation is that most American teachers in Asia tend to think that Americans have more intrinsic motivation and Asians have more extrinsic motivation.  In language terms this is framed as integrative motivation (intrinsic) versus instrumental motivation(extrinsic). I might agree that Asians study English because this subject can lead to career advancement when they graduate but I think the picture is actually much more complex.

Below are the 16 basic desires listed by Reiss and I would like to suggest that there are consistent cross-cultural differences. My analysis is informal, subjective and speculative but based upon more than 20 years living in nine different countries. This is a post on my personal blog not a research article! Perhaps my blog post will MOTIVATE a researcher to follow up with empirical research that can be published in a peer reviewed research journal.

I am American. I lived in China for one year and Taiwan for seven years so I do have some familiarity with Chinese culture. In my opinion Chinese and Taiwanese are only slightly different in the area of motivation. Chinese/Taiwanese on the other hand as a group are very different from Americans. Below is a table comparing the US and China using Hofstede’s Dimensions.

Hofstede US vs China

I have five years of teaching Americans at the secondary level and ten years of experience teaching Americans at the college level. Below is a record of my thoughts followed by a table that provides a synopsis of my analysis.

Acceptance – The need for approval

The US scores higher on Hofstede’s individualism score than China so probably acceptance is a higher motivation in China than the US. Many Chinese universities do have an official class leader. I have found that choosing one or two students to be class leaders when this formal mechanism is not present does seem to motivate the top students and I think most Americans would find this practice elitist and at odds with their egalitarian sensibilities.

Curiosity – The need to learn

Americans are perhaps the most curious people I have ever lived with. Curiosity is almost a defining characteristic of Americans. As a teacher who has taught in American and Chinese settings I have had to adapt my teaching style by relying less on curiosity as a the motivating factor in my lessons. However, Chinese, based purely on my experience, are more curious than perhaps Thai students, who I have taught for over six years. There are ethnographic studies that show American students are very active in the classroom compared to their Asian counterparts. Inductive lessons seem to work better with Americans since inductive lessons rely heavily on curiosity.

Eating – The need for food

I would say food is a more central part of Chinese culture than American culture but this is a very subjective view. At the college level, students are much more likely to take their respected university American teacher out to dinner in China. Conversely, rewarding your top students with a dinner at a restaurant can instill an incredible amount of loyalty among your Chinese students. This practice might seem a little elitist to many Americans but is not unheard of in the US.

Family – The need to raise children

Again as a measurably more collectivist culture, China is generally presumed to view family as being more important than Americans. At the practical level this means Chinese students may miss class because of family obligations. Chinese parents can and do order their adult college students to attend family functions. For example, my Chinese students studying in Thailand can be told by their parents that they need to go home for Chinese New Year. Officially Chinese New Year is not a holiday in Thailand. An American teacher should reflect that giving a Chinese student more leeway in this area than an American student might be a positive cultural adaptation on the part of the teacher that will instill more loyalty in the students in the long run.

Honor – The need to be loyal to the traditional values of one’s clan/ethnic group

As defined above, China clearly values honor more than Americans. American is a multi-cultural country and even defining “American” values is difficult. However, there are some transcultural values such as a commitment to democracy that are very strong in Americans. Criticizing your host country in class is a bad idea anywhere but is probably an even worse idea in China. Discussion of the Three Ts (Taiwan, Tibet, and Tiananmen) in China in an inappropriate manner can lead to your quick dismissal from your teaching post.

Idealism – The need for social justice

Americans have a very strong commitment to democracy and that includes strong views about social justice including a strong commitment to equality under the law, privacy, and the rights of the individual overall. Discussions about politics may lead to dead silence in your college class in China. There may be less interest in the topic and of course the students may correctly assume this is a topic that can get everyone involved into trouble.   As mentioned, the three T’s, Tiananmen, Tibet and Taiwan are probably best avoided in classroom discussions in China. This is the one area in which Taiwan is very different. You have a much, much more freedom to discuss politics in Taiwan but I would say once again this might be a topic Taiwanese are not all that interested in compared to Americans.

Independence – The need for individuality

As measured by Hoftstede, the US is much more individualistic than China. Autonomy is a large goal for many Americans at work and in life. I think my biggest surprise in Asia has been that many college students are studying majors their parents want them to rather than majors they want to study. Asian students do seem less willing to share class work alone and would rather share work with the class with a group or a classmate. Having a student read their paper alone in front of the class might actually be perceived as punishment by many Chinese students.

Order – The need for organized, stable, predictable environments

There is a lot of overlap between this concept and Hofstede’s concept of uncertainty avoidance. China scores higher on uncertainty avoidance. Chinese might prefer a more predictable environment than US students.

Physical activity – The need for exercise

I don’t perceive a lot of difference between American and Chinese students in this area. Chinese universities sometimes have a physical education requirement that is not present in American universities. However, both countries suffer from rising obesity albeit the US more so than China for now.

Power – The need for influence of will.

Hofstede’s power distance dimension applies to this area directly. There is much higher power distance teachers and students in a Chinese classroom than in an American classroom. I do think Chinese students will be less comfortable with extracurricular activities without strong teacher supervision and certainly the Chinese system will not allow them a much freedom as in the US. However, that doesn’t mean the Chinese students don’t want more power over their lives. Chinese in a work setting do seem to be willing to go to great lengths to achieve more power.

Romance – The need for sex and for beauty

Maybe a long time ago China was less driven by consumerism and the message that everyone should be sexy and beautiful. I think nowadays both countries put a premium on romantic needs as part of a successful life.

Saving – The need to collect

Chinese have a higher uncertainty avoidance index and a tradition of saving more income than Americans.

Social contact – The need for friends (peer relationships)

China is less individualistic than the US and peer relationships are much more important than in the US.

Social status – The need for social standing/importance

Both Chinese and Americans put a premium on social standing. I would say this is something that both countries have in common.

Tranquility – The need to be safe

Again, China has a higher uncertainty avoidance score so a desire for tranquility is probably higher among Chinese students than American students.

Vengeance – The need to strike back and to compete

There is a Chinese legalistic tradition that favors harsh punishment in order to maintain social harmony. In theory harsh punishment is not about revenge but historically this has not always been the case. The US probably emphasizes due process more than any other country in the world and certainly more so than China! Due process does make using the system to exact revenge using state resources more difficult regardless of motivation.

Links

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/curious/201407/16-ways-motivate-anyone

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motivation#Intrinsic_motivation_and_the_16_basic_desires_theory

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My Articles About China and/or Chinese Culture

16 Basic Desires: China versus US

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American versus Chinese Culture

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Google Drive Link: WereVerse Universe