038 Spanish Commands


To form commands, drop the final -s on the present tense conjugation for the tú form and change the final -r of the infinitive to -d for the vosotros form.  The other imperative conjugations (for Usted, Ustedes, and nosotros) use the present subjunctive forms. You use the nosotros form when you mean Let’s + infinitive. Negative commands use no + the present subjunctive conjugations for all forms. So the only forms that differ between affirmative and negative commands are tú and vosotros. Verbs that end in -car, -gar and -zar have the following changes in commands as well:  c becomes qu, g becomes gu, and z becomes c.

Affirmative

-ar                          -er or -ir

                                       -a                            -e

Usted                                -e                            -a

nosotros                            -emos                     -amos

vosotros                            -ad                          -ed / -id

Ustedes                             -en                          -an

Negative

-ar                                      -er or -ir

                                                     -es                                      -as

Usted                                               -e                                       -a

nosotros                                           -emos                                 -amos

vosotros                                           -éis                                     -áis

Ustedes                                            -en                                     -an

 

 

¡Habla!  = Speak!  (tú form)
¡Comed! = Eat!  (vosotros form)
¡No comáis! = Don’t eat!  (negative vosotros form)
¡Beba! = Drink!  (Usted form)
¡Coman! = Eat (Ustedes form)
¡No beban! = Don’t drink! (negative Ustedes form)

There are 8 irregular verbs in the imperative, but they are only irregular for the tú form. The rest of the commands follow the pattern above.

infinitive tú form
decir
hacer
ir
poner
salir
ser
tener
venir
di
haz
ve
pon
sal

ten
ven

There are several irregular stems that appear in the present subjunctive, and therefore in the imperative.

infinitive imperative stem
dar d-
decir dig-
estar est-
haber hay-
hacer hag-
ir vay-
poder pued-
poner pong-
querer quier-
saber sep-
salir salg-
ser se-
tener teng-
traer traig-
venir veng-

 

Links

http://www.ielanguages.com/spanish2.html

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NjUf_wpLlGs&feature=related

Next: 039 Spanish More Negatives

Spanish Index

Word Document at: 038 Spanish Commands

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