Hofstede 6 Cultural Dimensions


1.0) Power Distance Index (PDI)

PDI is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. This represents inequality (more versus less), but defined from below, not from above. It suggests that a society’s level of inequality is endorsed by the followers as much as by the leaders. Power and inequality, of course, are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that ‘all societies are unequal, but some are more unequal than others.

China (80), Thailand (64), US (40), Japan (54), World Average (55)

 

1.1) Egalitarian vs. Hierarchical

1.2) China is more ________ than Thailand.

1.3) The US is more _______ than China.

1.4) Thailand is more ______ than Japan.

1.5) Thailand is more ______ that the World Average.

1.6) China is less ________ than Thailand.

1.7) The US is less_______ than China.

1.8) Thailand is less ______ than Japan.

1.9) Thailand is less______ that the World Average.

1.10) How do you think PDI affects leadership, overall?

1.11) If your boss asks for your opinion, that is negative, then what should you do?

1.12) What sort of school issues should be voted on by the students, if any?

1.13) Your boss is about to release a statement in English to a newspaper. You notice several mistakes in the statement. Your English is actually better than her English since you have studied in an English speaking country but she hasn’t. What should you do?

Table adapted from:

https://www.scribd.com/doc/257031363/Dimensionalizing-Cultures-The-Hofstede-Model-in-Context

Hofstede Small Power Distance versus Large Power Distance Resized

Hofstede Power Distance Exercise

2.0) Individualism (IDV)

IDV is on the one side versus its opposite, collectivism, that is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. On the collectivist side, we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, often extended families (with uncles, aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.

China (20), Thailand (20), US (91), Japan (46), World Average (43)

2.1) Individualistic versus Collectivist

2.2) China is more ________ than Thailand.

2.3) The US is more _______ than China.

2.4) Thailand is more ______ than Japan.

2.5) Thailand is more ______ that the World Average.

2.6) China is less ________ than Thailand.

2.7) The US is less_______ than China.

2.8) Thailand is less ______ than Japan.

2.9) Thailand is less______ that the World Average.

2.10) What are some in-groups that Thais belong to?

2.11) What does guanxi mean in Chinese? How does guanxi reflect collectivism in Chinese society?

2.12) If an old class mate asks for a “special” price from your company because of your relationship then what should you do?

2.13) If your sister asks you to get your niece an entry level job at your company then what should you do?

 

2.14) Which is more important for success in business? Who you know or what you know?

2.15) Your father is a successful business man. You want to be a musician but your father is totally against this idea and thinks you should study business and even work for his company when you graduate. Should you go ahead and study music despite the objections of your father?

2.16) What does the Thai word kreng jai mean? How does kreng jai reflect collectivism in Thai society?

Table adapted from:

https://www.scribd.com/doc/257031363/Dimensionalizing-Cultures-The-Hofstede-Model-in-Context

Hofstede Individualism versus Collectivism Resized

Hofstede Individualism vs. Collectivism

3.0) Masculinity (MAS)

MAS versus its opposite, femininity, refers to the distribution of roles between the genders which is another fundamental issue for any society to which a range of solutions are found. The IBM studies revealed that (a) women’s values differ less among societies than men’s values; (b) men’s values from one country to another contain a dimension from very assertive and competitive and maximally different from women’s values on the one side, to modest and caring and similar to women’s values on the other. The assertive pole has been called ‘masculine’ and the modest, caring pole ‘feminine’.

China (50), Thailand (34), US (62), Japan (94), World Average (50)

3.1) Masculine versus Feminine

3.2) China is more ________ than Thailand.

3.3) The US is more _______ than China.

3.4) Thailand is more ______ than Japan.

3.5) Thailand is more ______ that the World Average.

3.6) China is less ________ than Thailand.

3.7) The US is less_______ than China.

3.8) Thailand is less ______ than Japan.

3.9) Thailand is less______ that the World Average.

3.10) One of your employees has a sick mother and has been absent or late almost every other work day for more than a month. What should you do?

3.11) Is a company like a family or not?

Table adapted from:

https://www.scribd.com/doc/257031363/Dimensionalizing-Cultures-The-Hofstede-Model-in-Context

Hofstede Traits of Masculinity-Femininity Table Resized

Hofstede Masculinity / Femininity Exercise

4.0) Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI)

UAI deals with a society’s tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity; it ultimately refers to man’s search for Truth. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. Unstructured situations are novel, unknown, surprising, different from usual. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules, safety and security measures, and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth; ‘there can only be one Truth and we have it.

China (60), Thailand (64), US (46), Japan (92), World Average (64)

4.1) During a brainstorming session the Chinese employees are much more quiet than their American counterparts. How would you explain this difference in behavior using the UAI concept?

4.2) Could Steve Jobs have started Apple in Japan? Why or why not?

4.3) Bill Gates dropped out of Harvard to start Microsoft! Your classmate and close friend also wants to drop out of college to start his own company and keeps mentioning Bill Gates. What advice would you give your friend?

Table adapted from:

https://www.scribd.com/doc/257031363/Dimensionalizing-Cultures-The-Hofstede-Model-in-Context

Hofstede Uncertainty Avoidance Table Resized

Hofstede Uncertainty Avoidance

5.0) Long-Term Orientation (LTO)

LTO vs. short term orientation: First called “Confucian dynamism”, it describes societies’ time horizon. Long-term oriented societies attach more importance to the future. They foster pragmatic values oriented towards rewards, including persistence, saving and capacity for adaptation. In short term oriented societies, values promoted are related to the past and the present, including steadiness, respect for tradition, preservation of one’s face, reciprocation and fulfilling social obligations.

China (118), Thailand (44), US (29), Japan (80H), World Average (45)

5.1) Long-Term Orientation versus Short-Term Orientation

5.2) China has a more ________ than Thailand.

5.3) The US has a more _______ than China.

5.4) Thailand has a more ______ than Japan.

5.5) Thailand has a more ______ that the World Average.

5.6) China has a less ________ than Thailand.

5.7) The US has a less_______ than China.

5.8) Thailand has a less ______ than Japan.

5.9) Thailand has a less______ that the World Average.

5.10)  You have job offers from two companies.  One company is very stable and large and is offering a low starting salary and is famous for having low salaries compared to other companies but offers life time employment.  The other company is new and much smaller and is offering a much higher starting salary.  The new company may or may not be around in two years in your opinion.  Which company should you work for?

Table adapted from:

https://www.scribd.com/doc/257031363/Dimensionalizing-Cultures-The-Hofstede-Model-in-Context

Hofstede Short-Term Orientation vs Long-Term Orientation Table Resized

Hofstede Short-Term Orientation versus Long-Term Orientation

6.0) Indulgence versus Restraint (IVR) Indulgence stands for a society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun. Restraint stands for a society that suppresses gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms.

Indulgence as a cultural value also tends towards a perception of personal life control, while restraint as a cultural value tends towards a perception of helplessness and that what happens in one’s life is beyond his/her own control.

Clinicians may find that, in response to a disability, individuals from a culture of indulgence feel that they have control over their future level of function and participation in life activities; meanwhile, individuals from a background of cultural restraint may have a sense of helplessness and be less actively involved in taking control over their involvement in functional activities outside of the clinic.

Additionally, in cultures valuing restraint, leisure activities are of lesser value, which may prove important to consider in selecting functional therapy activities. Cultures valuing indulgence place higher importance on leisure and so activities considered enjoyable may be more appropriate for individuals with this cultural trait.

China (24), Thailand (45), US (68), Japan (42)

6.1) Indulgence versus Restraint

6.2) China has more ________ than Thailand.

6.3) The US has more _______ than China.

6.4) Thailand has more ______ than Japan.

6.5) China has less ________ than Thailand.

6.6) The US has less_______ than China.

6.7) Thailand has less ______ than Japan.

Table adapted from:

https://www.scribd.com/doc/257031363/Dimensionalizing-Cultures-The-Hofstede-Model-in-Context

Hofstede Indulgence vs Restrained Table Resized

Hofstede Indulgent Versus Restrained Societies

Putting it all together!

China

Thailand

US

Japan

The table below is from the following article:

https://www.scribd.com/doc/257859492/A-Framework-to-Update-Hofstede-s-Cultural-Value-Indices-Economic-Dynamics-and-Institutional-Stability

Hofstede and Institutional Variables Resized

Worksheet at:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/169604052/Hofstede-Cultural-Dimensions

Hofstede Index

 

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