List of Events in British History


Hugh Fox British History

54 BC Expeditions of Julius   Caesar.
AD 43 Invasion of Britain by   Emperor Claudius.
c.50 Foundation of London.
61 Revolt of Boudicca   (Boadicea) against the Romans.
122 Construction of Hadrian’s   Wall begun, from the Tyne to the Solway Firth.
409 End of Roman rule in   Britain.
c.450 Jutes settle in Kent.
c.477 Saxons settle in   Sussex, Wessex, and Essex.
c.495 Angles settle in   Norfolk and Suffolk (East Anglia).
597 Saint Augustine’s mission   arrives in Kent from Rome.
793-795 Danish raids on   Lindisfarne, Jarrow and Iona.
843 Kenneth MacAlpine   engages in first stage of Scottish unification.
867 Northumbria falls to   the Danes.
870 East Anglia falls to   the Danes.
871 Alfred becomes king of   Wessex.
878 Pence of Edington   determines the boundary between the Saxon and Danish-controlled sectors of   England.
919 Norse kingdom of York   is founded by Raegnald.
1016 Cnut becomes king of   England.
1017 Cnut divides England   into four earldoms.
1035 Death of Cnut.
1066 Duke William of   Normandy defeats and kills King Harold and becomes king of England.
1086 Domesday survey.
1087 Death of William the   Conqueror; accession of his son William II Rufus.
1100 Death of William II; accession   of Henry I.
1106 Henry I takes   Normandy.
1135 Death of Henry I;   accession of Stephen.
1139-1153 Civil war in England.
1154 Accession of Henry II.
1169-1172 English conquest of   Ireland begins.
1170 Murder of Archbishop   Thomas à Becket.
1189 Death of Henry II;   accession of Richard I.
1199 Death of Richard I;   accession of John.
1215 Magna Carta; civil war   in England.
1216 Death of John;   accession of Henry III.
1259 Treaty of Paris   between England and France.
1265 Battle of Evesham;   death of Simon de Montfort.
1267 Henry recognizes   Llywelyn ap Gruffydd as Prince of Wales.
1272 Death of Henry III;   accession of Edward I.
1284 Wales brought under   English control.
1291 Edward I asserts his   overlordship over Scotland.
1294 War with France begins.
1296 Edward I invades   Scotland.
1307 Death of Edward I;   accession of Edward II.
1314 Scottish victory at   Bannockburn under Robert Bruce.
1315-1316 Great famine.
1321-1322 Civil war in England.
1337 The Hundred Years’ War   begins.
1346 English victory over   Crecy.
1347 English capture of   Calais.
1348 First occurrence of   the ‘Black Death’ (plague) in England.
1356 English victory at   Poitiers.
1361 Second major   occurrence of the Black Death.
1381 The Peasants’ Revolt.
1382 Condemnation of John   Wycliffe’s works.
1394-1395 Richard II’s   expedition to Ireland.
1396 Anglo-French treaty.
1412 St Andrews University   founded in Scotland.
1415 English victory at   Agincourt.
1419-1420 English conquest of   Normandy.
1420 Anglo-French treaty of   Troyes.
1449-1450 French overrunning of   Normady.
1477 William Caxton’s first   printed book in England.
1483 Death of Richard II at   Bosworth; accession of Henry VII.
1509 Accession of Henry   VIII.
1512 War with France and   Scotland.
1528 War with Spain.
1533 Henry VIII marries Ann   Boleyn; birth of Princess Elizabeth.
1534 Act of Supremacy; the   King becomes Supreme Head of the English Church.
1535 Execution of Sir   Thomas More and Bishop John Fisher.
1536-1543 Wales joins England   under one administration.
1536 Dissolution of the   Monasteries; union of England and Wales.
1543 War with France.
1547 Death of Henry VIII;   accession of 10-year-old Edward VI.
1549 First Book of Common   Prayer.
1555 Persecution of   Protestants begins under Mary Tudor.
1570 Papal bull   excommunicating Queen Elizabeth I.
1580 Sir Francis drake   becomes the first Englishman to circumnavigate the world.
1587 War with Spain.
1588 Defeat of the Spanish   Armada.
1603 James VI of Scotland   succeeds to the throne as James I of England.
1605 Gunpowder Plot of Guy   Fawkes.
1607 Settlement of Virginia   in North America.
1609 Rebellion of the   Northern Earls in Ireland; beginnings of the Planting of Ulster by Scotts and   English Protestants.
1611 Publications of   Authorized Version of the Bible.
1620 Pilgrim Fathers sail   to New England.
1624-1630 War with Spain.
1626-1629 War with France.
1629 Charles I dissolves   Parliament.
1640 Long Parliament   summoned.
1642-1649 Civil War between   Royalists (‘Cavaliers’) and Parliamentarians (‘Roundheads’).
1646 Presbyterian Church   established in Scotland.
1649 Trial and execution of   Charles I; England becomes a Republic (‘Commonwealth’).
1649-1653 The ‘Rump’ Parliament.
1649-1650 Oliver Cromwell   ‘pacifies’ Ireland.
1650-1652 Oliver Cromwell   conquers Scotland.
1653 Cromwell dissolves the   ‘Rump’ Parliament and becomes Lord Protector.
1655-1660 War with Spain.
1658 Cromwell dies and is   succeeded by his son Richard.
1659 Richard is overthrown   by the army.
1660 Charles II is   restored.
1662 The Royal Society is   established.
1665 The Great Plague.
1666 The Great Fire of   London.
1679-1681 The emergence of Whig   and Tory parties.
1688 ‘Glorious Revolution’:   William of Orange invades; James II escapes to France; accession of William   III.
1689 Bill of Rights settles   succession to the throne and declares illegal various grievances.
1690 James II defeated by   William III in Ireland (Battle of the Boyne).
1694 Bank of England is   founded.
1701 The War of Spanish Succession   begins.
1702 British capture   Gibraltar from spain.
1704 Malborough defeats the   French at the Battle of Blenheim.
1707 Union of England and   Scotland.
1713 Peace Treaty of   Utrecht concludes the War of Spanish Succession.
1715 Jacobite rebellion in   Scotland under Earl of Mar.
1720 South Sea Bubble: many   investors ruined after speculation in the stock of the South Sea Company.
1721 Walpole ministry.
1738 John Wesley begins the   Methodist movement.
1745 Prince Charles Edward   leads a second Jacobite rising in Scotland and is finally defeated at   Culloden.
1756 Seven Years’ War:   Britain allied with Frederick the Great of Prussia against France, Austria   and Russia.
1757 Battle of Plassey:   British victory of Bengal over the French in India.
1759 Capture of Quebec:   British victory over the French in Canada.
c.1760s-1830s Industrial Revolution.
1763 Peace of Paris   concludes Seven Years’ War.
1769 James Watt’s steam   engine patented.
1773 Boston Tea Party: American   colonists protest against the East India Company’s monopoly of tea exports to   America.
1776 Declaration of   American Independence; Adam Smith publishes Wealth of Nations.
1783 Peace of Versailles   recognizes independence of American colonies.
1796 Vaccination against   smallpox introduced.
1801 Union with Ireland.
1802 Prime minister Peel   introduces first factory legislation.
1803 War with France.
1805 Battle of Trafalgar:   Nelson defeats the French and Spanish fleets.
1811 ‘Luddite’ disturbances   in Nottinghamshire and Yorkshire.
1813 East India Company’s   monopoly abolished.
1815 Battle of Waterloo:   defeat of Napoleon. Congress of Vienna; peace in Europe. Corn Law passed   setting the price of corn at 80s. per quarter.
1819 Peterloo massacre in   Manchester.
1825 Stockton-Darlington   railway opened. Trade Union legalized.
1828 Nonconformists allowed   to hold public offices.
1829 Roman Catholics are   given vote and allowed to hold public offices; organization of the police   force by Robert Peele.
1832 First Reform Act   extends franchise and restructures representation in Parliament.
1833 First government grant   for education.
1834 Slavery is abolished   in the British Empire. Parish workhouses instituted.
1837 Accession of Queen   Victoria.
1838 People’s Charter   demands fundamental political reform.
1840 Penny post is   instituted.
1844 Rochdale Co-operative   Society is founded. Royal Commission on Health of Towns. Potato famine begins   in Ireland.
1844-1845 Railway mania. 5,000   miles of tract laid.
1846 Corn Law abolished.
1847 Chloroform is first   used as an anaesthetic.
1848 Chartism finally   collapses. Public Health Act.
1851 Great Exhibition is   held in London at the Crystal Palace.
1854 Working Men’s College   founded in London. The Crimean War, in which Britain and France are engaged   with Russia, and with Florence Nightingale comes to public prominence.
1856 Bessemer’s new, and   cheaper, steel making process is introduced.
1857 Matrimonial Causes   Act, setting up divorce courts allowing men to obtain divorce on the grounds   of the adultery of the wife.
1858 Indian Mutiny   suppressed.
1859 The Society for   promoting the Employment of Women formed. Publication of Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species.
1862 Limited Liability Act   provides vital stimulus to accumulation of capital shares.
1864 First national Trade   Union Conference is held.
1865 Irish Fenian movement   founded against British rule.
1867 Second Reform Act   increases suffrage.
1868 Trades Union Congress   meets for the first time.
1869 Labour Representation   League founded. Irish Church disestablished.
1870 Forster’s Education   Act extends the provision of elementary education. Married Women’s Property   Act extends the rights of women in marriage.
1872 Ballot Act creates   secret voting.
1874 First Trade Union   Members of Parliament elected. Disraeli’s second Conservative government.
1875 Disraeli buys Suez   Canal shares, gaining a controlling interest for Britain. Agricultural   depression deepens.
1876 Queen Victoria   proclaimed Empress of India.
1878 Women are admitted to   degree courses at the University of London.
1879 British-Zulu war in   Africa.
1880 Mundella’s Education   Act introduces compulsory schooling for children between the ages of five and   thirteen.
1884 Third Reform Act   extends suffrage to virtually all adult males. A series of explosions in   London caused by Fenians.
1886 Gladstone’s third   Liberal government fails to enact first Home Rule Bill for Ireland: Liberal   Party splits.
1892 Three Independent   Socialists elected as MPs.
1893 Second Home Rule Bill   rejected by Lords; election of the first socialist M.P., Keir Hardie.
1897 National Union of Women’s   Suffrage Societies founded.
1899 Boer war in South   Africa begins.
1900 Labour Party founded.
1901 Death of Queen   Victoria.
1902 Boer War ends.
1904 Anglo-French Entente.
1906 Labour Party wins   fifty-three seats in the General Election.
1908 Old Age Pension   introduced.
1909 Campaign for female   suffrage intensifies.
1911 The physicist   Rutherford propounds a new theory of the atom. Parliament curtails power of   the House of lords; establishes five-yearly elections.
1914 The Great War (First   World War) breaks out.
1915-1916 Dardanelles   expedition, ending in British withdrawal from Gallipoli.
1918 The Great War finally   ends after immense destruction and loss of life. Limited female franchise   granted in Britain.
1922 Creation of the Irish   Free State, following the treaty concluded with Sinn Fein in December 1921.
1924 Macdonald’s first   Labour government. Conservatives return to office under Prime minister   Baldwin.
1925 Plaid Cymru, the welsh   nationalist party founded.
1926 General Strike (3-12 May).
1929 General election:   MacDonald leads the second Labour government.
1935 Government of India   Act.
1937 Neville Chamberlain   succeeds Baldwin as Conservative Prime Minister.
1938 Chamberlain meets   Hitler in Munich. Abdication of Edward VIII.
1939 British Empire   declares war on Germany (3 September).
1940 Winston Churchill   succeeds Chamberlain as Prime Minister.
1942 Montgomery’s victory   at El Alamein, North Africa.
1943 Anglo-American armies   invade Italy.
1944 D-day invasion of   France. Butler Education Act provides for free state education, compulsory to   age 15.
1945 End of war in Europe   (8 May). General election; massive Labour victory; Attlee becomes Prime   Minister.
1946 National Health   Service established.
1947 Coal and other   industries nationalized; end of British rule in India.
1948 Establishment of the   National Health Service and Welfare State.
1949 NATO founded.
1953 Coronation of Queen   Elizabeth II.
1956 Anglo-French invasion   of Suez is followed by withdrawal.
1957 National Service   (compulsory military service) abolished.
1959 Conservatives win with   large majority.
1960 Government announces   bid to join the Common Market.
1963 Profumo scandal.   Philby is identified as the third Soviet spy in the Burgess and Maclean   affair of 1951.
1964 Labour under Harold   Wilson win narrow majority.
1965 Capital punishment   abolished in Britain.
1966 General election;   Labour win with much larger majority.
1967 Devaluation of the   pound. Legalisation of abortion and homosexuality.
1969 British troops are   sent into Northern Ireland.
1970 Conservatives under   Edward Heath returned to office.
1971 Decimal currency   replaces pounds, shillings, pence, and farthing.
1972 Prime Minister Heath   announces direct rule in Northern Ireland. Stormont abolished. School-leaving   age raised to 16.
1973 Britain enters   European Common Market.
1975 Britain begins to   exploit North Sea oil.
1976 Economic crisis;   Britain obtains help from the International Monetary Fund. Callaghan becomes   Prime Minister after Wilson’s resignation.
1977 Silver Jubilee of   Queen Elizabeth II.
1978 ‘Winter of   Discontent’: strikes and shutdowns all over Britain.
1979 Conservatives under   Mrs Thatcher elected.
1981 Social Democratic   Party founded.
1982 Britain defeats Argentina   in war over the Falkland Islands.
1983 General election; Mrs   Thatcher’s Conservative government is returned with massive majority.
1984 Miners’ strike lasts a   year.
1986 Channel Tunnel treaty   signed.
1987 General election; Mrs   Thatcher’s Conservative government again returned with a majority of over   100.
1990 Mrs Thatcher succeeded   as Prime Minister and leader of the Conservative Party by John Major.
1992 Britain signs the   Maastricht Treaty on European Union.
1993 The single European   market takes effect.
1994 Labour Party under the   new leader, Tony Blair, abandons its commitment to public ownership of major   utilities. Opening of the Channel Tunnel between Britain and France.
1997 Labour Party elected   to power under Tony Blair with a massive majority.

Worksheet

List of Events in American History

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