Kaplan Cultural Thought Patterns
English – (includes Germanic languages such as German, Dutch, Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish) Communication is direct, linear and doesn’t digress or go off topic.
Semitic – (for example, Arabic or Hebrew) Thoughts are express in a series of parallel ideas, both positive and negative. Coordination is valued over subordination.
Oriental – (Languages of Asia) Communication is indirect. A topic is not addressed head on, but is viewed from various perspectives, working around and around the point.
Romance – (Latin-based languages such as French, Italian, Romanian and Spanish) Communication often digresses. It is fine to introduce extraneous material, which adds to the richness of the communication.
Russian – Like Romance languages, Russian communication is often digressive. The digression may include a series of parallel ideas.
If you discuss the topic of contrastive rhetoric then you have to mention Kaplan but many researchers are very critical of Kaplan and consider his ideas to be dated and logically suspect. Connor, U. (1996) provides an updated view of how contrastive rhetoric can be viewed as a field with a focus on empirical sources for the field rather than a finished theory.
A grand theory of contrastive rhetoric of the sort that Kaplan envisioned may not be forthcoming but the following bibliography should provide the researcher interested in this area with a good start:
Contrastive Rhetoric Bibliography
Allaei, S. K., & Connor, U. (1990). Exploring the dynamics of cross-cultural collaboration in writing classrooms. The Writing Instructor, 10, 19–28.
Ansary, H., & Babaii, E. (2009). A Cross-cultural analysis of English newspaper editorials. RELC Journalm, 40, 211-249.
Atkinson, D. (1999). Culture in TESOL. TESOL Quarterly, 33, 625–654.
Atkinson, D. (2000). On Robert B. Kaplan’s response to Terry Santos et al.’s “On the Future of Second Language Writing.” Journal of Second Language Writing, 9, 317–322.
Ballard, B., & Clanchy, J. (1991). Assessment by misconception: Cultural influences and intellectual traditions. In L. Hamp-Lyons (Ed.), Second language writing in academic contexts, (pp. 122-134). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Bean, J., Cucchiara, M., Eddy, R., Elbow, P., Grego, R., Haswell, R. et al. (2003). Should we invite students to write in home languages? Complicating the yes/no debate. Composition Studies, 31, 25–42.
Belcher, D. D. (1994). The apprenticeship approach to advanced academic literacy: Graduate students and their mentors. English for Specic Purposes, 13, 23–34.
Belcher, D. D. (1997). An argument for nonadversarial argumentation: On the relevance of the feminist critique of academic discourse to L2 writing pedagogy. Journal of Second Language Writing, 6, 1–21.
Benesch, S. (2001). Critical English for academic purposes: Theory, politics, and practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Benson, P. (1997). The philosophy and politics of learner autonomy. In P. Benson & P. Voller (Eds.), Autonomy & independence in language learning (pp. 18–34). London: Longman.
Bhatia, V. K. (1993). Analyzing genre: Language use in professional settings. New York: Longman.
Bloch, J. (2001). Plagiarism and the ESL student: From printed to electronic texts. In D. D. Belcher & A. Hirvela (Eds.), Linking literacies (pp. 209–245). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Bloch, J., & Chi, L. (1995). A comparison of the use of citations in Chinese and English academic discourse. In D. Belcher & G. Braine (Eds.), Academic writing in a second language: Essays on research and pedagogy (pp. 231–274). Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Bourdieu,
Braine, G. (Ed.). (1998). Non-native educators in English language teaching. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Burstein, J., Kukich, K., Wolff, S., Lu, C., and Chodorow, M. (1998). Enriching Automated Essay Scoring Using Discourse Marking: Discourse Relations and Discourse Markers. Proceedings of the Conference of Computational Linguistics, East Stroudsburg, Pa., 15-21. Retrieved January 21, 2008, from http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/article/burstein98enriching.html.
Cahill, D. (2003). The myth of the ‘‘turn’’ in contrastive rhetoric. Written Communication, 20, 170–194.
Cai, G. (1993). Beyond bad writing: Teaching English composition to Chinese ESL students. Paper presented at the College Composition and Communication Conference, San Diego CA.
Canagarajah, A. S. (1999). Resisting linguistic imperialism in English teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Carson, J. G. (1992). Becoming biliterate: First language influences. Journal of Second Language Writing, 1, 37–60.
Carson, J. G., & Nelson, G. L. (1994). Writing groups: Cross-cultural issues. Journal of Second Language Writing, 3, 17–30.
Carson, J. G., & Nelson, G. L. (1996). Chinese students’ perceptions of ESL peer response group interaction. Journal of Second Language Writing, 5, 1–19.
Casanave, C. P. (1995). Local interactions: Constructing contexts for composing in a graduate sociology program. In D. D. Belcher & G. Braine (Eds.), Academic writing in a second language: Essays on research and pedagogy (pp. 83–110). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Casanave, C. P. (2004). Controversies in second language writing: Dilemmas and decisions in research and instruction. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.
Celce-Murcia, M., & Olshtain, E. (2000). Discourse and context in language teaching: A guide for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chen, G. H., & Chung, J. (1994). The impact of Confucianism on organizational communication. Communication Quarterly, 42(2), 93-105.
Chen, J. (2008). An investigation into the preference for discourse patterns in the Chinese EFL learning context. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 18, 188-211.
Cho, J.H. (1999). Contrastive Rhetoric. Unpublished PhD thesis. Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH. Retrieved December 18, 2007, from http://faculty.fullerton.edu/jcho/dispreface.htm
Christensen, F. (1963). A generative rhetoric of the paragraph. College Composition and Communication, 16, 144–156. 508, TESOL Quarterly.
Clyne, M. G., (1987). Cultural differences in the organization of academic texts: English and German. Journal of Pragmatics, 11, 211–247.
Connor, U. (1996). Contrastive rhetoric: Cross-cultural aspects of second-language writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Connor, U. (2002). New directions in contrastive rhetoric. TESOL Quarterly, 36, 493–510.
Connor, U. (2004). Intercultural rhetoric research: beyond texts. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 3, 291-304.
Connor, U. (in press). Changing currents in contrastive rhetoric: Implications for teaching and research. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Exploring the dynamics of second language writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Connor, U., & Asenavage, K. (1994). Peer response groups in ESL writing classes: How much impact on revision? Journal of Second Language Writing, 3, 257–275.
Connor, U., & Johns, A. M. (Eds.). (1990). Coherence in writing: Research and pedagogical perspectives. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.
Connor, U., & Kaplan, R. B. (1987). Writing across languages: Analysis of L2 text. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Connor, U., & Kramer, M. (1995). Writing from sources: Case studies of graduate students in business management. In D. D. Belcher & G. Braine (Eds.), Academic writing in a second language: Essays on research and pedagogy (pp. 155–182). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Connor, U., & Lauer, J. (1985). Understanding persuasive essay writing: Linguistic/ rhetorical approach. Text, 5, 309–326.
Connor, U., & Lauer, J. (1988). Cross-cultural variation in persuasive student writing. In Purves, A.C. (ed.) Writing Across Languages and Cultures: Issues in Contrastive Rhetoric. Newbury Park: Sage, 138-159.
Connor, U., & Mauranen, A. (1999). Linguistic analysis of grant proposals: European Union research grants. English for Specific Purposes, 18, 47–62.
Connor, U., & Mayberry, S. (1995). Learning discipline-speci. c academic writing: A case study of a Finnish graduate student in the United States. In E. Ventola & A. Mauranen (Eds.), Academic writing: Intercultural and textual issues (pp. 231–253). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Connor, U., Davis, K., & DeRycker, T. (1995). Correctness and clarity in applying for overseas jobs: A cross-cultural analysis of U.S. and Flemish applications. Text, 15, 457–475.
Connor, U., Halleck, G., & Mbaye, A. (2002, March). Cross-cultural issues of academic literacy in U.S. research labs: Fronting the socialization dimension. Paper given at the American Association of Applied Linguistics conference, Salt Lake City, UT.
Connor, U., Helle, T., Mauranen, A., Ringbom, H., Tirkkonen-Condit, S., & Yli- Antola, M. (1995). Tekokkaita EU-projektiehdotuksia [Successful EU grant proposals]. Helsinki, Finland: Tekes.
Cope, B., & Kalantzis, M. (Eds.). (1993). The powers of literacy: A genre approach to teaching writing. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Cortazzi, M., & Jin, L. (1997). “Communication for learning across cultures.” In D. McNamar & R. Harris (Eds.), Overseas students in higher education: Issues in teaching and learning (pp. 76-90). New York: Routledge.
Crawford, J. (2000). At war with diversity: US language policy in an age of anxiety. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Crowe, C., & Peterson, K. (1995). Classroom research: Helping Asian students succeed in writing courses. Teaching English in the Two Year College, 22(1), 31-37.
Crystal, D. (1997). English as a global language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cumming, A. (1989). Writing expertise and second language proficiency. Language Learning, 39, 81–141.
Cummins, J. (2001). Negotiating identities: Education for empowerment in a diverse society (2nd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: California Association for Bilingual Education.
Delpit, L. (1988). The silenced dialogue: Power and pedagogy in educating other people’s children. Harvard Educational Review, 58, 84–102.
Delpit, L. (1995). Other people’s children: Cultural conflict in the classroom. New York, NY: The New Press.
Donahue, R. T. (1998). Japanese culture and communication: Critical cultural analysis. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
Duszak, A. (1994). Academic discourse and intellectual styles. Journal of Pragmatics, 21, 291–313.
Dyer, B., & Friederich, L. (2002). The personal narrative as cultural artifact: Teaching autobiography in Japan. Written Communication, 19, 265–296.
Eason, C. A. (1995). Argumentative essays written by native speakers of Chinese and English: A study in contrastive rhetoric. Unpublished doctoral dissertationUniversity of Illinois, Rubana-Champaign, IL.
Eggington, W. G. (1987). Written academic discourse in Korean: Implication for effective communication. In U. Connor & R. B. Kaplan (Eds.), Writing across languages: Analysis of L2 text (pp. 153–168). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Ellis, R. (1985). Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Enkvist, N. E. (1997). Why we need contrastive rhetoric. Alternation, 4, 188–206.
Enkvist, N. E. (Ed.). (1985). Text linguistics and written composition [Special issue]. Text, 5(4).
Evensen, L. S. (Ed.). (1986). Nordic research on text linguistics and discourse analysis.
Fanon, F. (1967). Black skin, white masks. New York, NY: Grove Weidenfeld.
Fitze, M. (2006). Discourse and participation in ESL face-to-face and written electronic conferences. Language Learning & Technology, 10(1), 67-86.
Flowerdew, J. (1999). Writing for scholarly publication in English: The case of Hong Kong. Journal of Second Language Writing, 8, 123–146.
Fox, H. (1994). Listening to the world: Cultural issues in academic writing. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Freire, P., & Macedo, D. (1987). Literacy: Reading the word and the world. South Hadley, MA: Bergin & Garvey.
Godo, A.M. (2008). Cross-cultural aspects of academic writing: a study of Hungarian and North American college students L1 argumentative essays. International Journal of English Studies, 8, 65-111.
Goldstein, L. M., & Conrad, S. M. (1990). Student input and negotiation of meaning in ESL writing conferences. TESOL Quarterly, 24, 443–460. NEW DIRECTIONS IN CONTRASTIVE RHETORIC 509
Golebiowski, Z. (1998). Rhetorical approaches to scienti. c writing: An English-Polish contrastive study. Text, 18, 67–102.
Gosden, H. (1992). Research writing and NNS: From the editors. Journal of Second Language Writing, 1, 123–140.
Grabe, W., & Kaplan, R. (1989). Writing a second language: Contrastive rhetoric. In D. Johnson & D. Roen (Eds.), Richness in writing: Empowering ESL students, (pp. 263 -283). New York: Longman.
Grabe, W., & Kaplan, R.B. (1996). Theory and Practice of Writing: An Applied Linguistic Perspective. London: Longman.
Greenfield, R. (2003). Collaborative e-mail exchange for teaching secondary ESL: A case study in Hong Kong. Language Learning & Technology, 7(1), 46–70.
Gumperz, J., & Levinson, S. (1996). Rethinking linguistic relativity. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Halliday, M.A.K., & Matthiessen, C.M. (2004). An Introduction to Functional Grammar. 3rd ed. London: Edward Arnold.
Haraway, D. (1988). Situated knowledges: The science question in feminism and the privilege of partial perspective. Feminist Studies, 14, 575–599.
Hatim, B. (1997). Communication across cultures. Translation theory and contrastive text linguistics. Exeter, England: University of Exeter Press.
Hawisher, G.E., & Selfe, C.L. (2006). Globalization and agency: Designing and redesigning the literacies of cyberspace. College English, 68(6), 619-636.
Herrnstein, R. J., & Murray, C. (1994). The bell curve: Intelligence and class structure in American life. New York: The Free Press. 24 R. Kubota, A. Lehner / Journal of Second Language Writing 13 (2004) 7–27
Hinds, J. (1983b). Linguistics and written discourse in English and Japanese: A contrastive study (1978–1982). In R. B. Kaplan (Ed.), Annual review of applied linguistics, III (pp. 78–84). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Hinds, J. (1987). Reader versus writer responsibility: A new typology. In U. Connor & R. B. Kaplan (Eds.), Writing across languages: Analysis of L2 text (pp. 141–152). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Hinds, J. (1990). Inductive, deductive, quasi-inductive: Expository writing in Japanese, Korean, Chinese, and Thai. In U.Connor & A.M. Johns (Eds.), Coherence in writing: Research and pedagogical perspectives (pp. 87-110). Alexandria, VA: TESOL.
Hirose, K. (2003). Comparing L1 and L2 organizational patterns in the argumentative writing of Japanese EFL students. Journal of Second Language Writing, 12, 181–209.
Holyoak, S., & Piper, A. (1997). Talking to second language writers: using interview data to investigate contrastive rhetoric. Language Teaching Research 1, 122-148.
Hottel-Burkhart, N. G. (2000). The canons of Aristotelian rhetoric: Their place in contrastive Arabic-English studies. In Z. M. Ibrahim, N. Kassabgy, & S. Aydelott (Eds.), Diversity in language: Contrastive studies in English and Arabic theoretical and applied linguistics (pp. 93–110). Cairo, Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press.
Hull, G., Rose, M., Fraser, K. L., & Castellano, M. (1991). Remediation as a social construct: Perspectives from an analysis of classroom discourse. College Composition and Communication, 42, 299–329.
Hyland, K. (2006). Feedback on second language students’ writing. Language Teaching, 39(2), 83–101.
Hymes, D. (1962). The ethnography of speaking. In T. Gladwin & W. Sturtevant, Anthropology and human behavior (pp. 13–53). Washington, DC: Anthropological Society of Washington.
Ibrahim, Z. M., Kassabgy, N., & Aydelott, S. (Eds.). (2000). Diversity in language: Contrastive studies in English and Arabic theoretical and applied linguistics. Cairo, Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press.
Indrasuta, C. (1988). Narrative styles in the writing of Thai and American students. In Purves, A.C. (ed.) Writing Across Languages and Cultures: Issues in Contrastive Rhetoric. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 206-226.
Ivanic, R. (1998). Writing and identity: The discoursal construction of identity in academic writing. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Jenkins, S., & Hinds, J. (1987). Business letter writing: English, French, and Japanese. TESOL Quarterly, 21, 327–354.
Jensen, A. (1969). How much can we boost IQ and scholastic achievement? Harvard Educational Review, 39, 1– 123.
Johnstone, B. (1986). Arguments with Khomeni: Rhetorical situation and persuasive style in cross-cultural perspective. Text, 6, 171–187.
Jorda´n, J. S. (2001). In the interest of national security: The English only initiative. In S. R. Steinberg (Ed.), Multi/intercultural conversations: A reader (pp. 609–624). New York: Peter Lang.
Jordan, R. R. (1997). Identification of problems and needs: a student project. In A.P. Cowie & J.B. Heaton (Eds.), English for academic purposes (pp. 67-89). Reading, UK: University of Reading.
Kachru, B. B. (1986). The Alchemy of English: The spread, functions and models of non-native Englishes. London: Pergamon Press.
Kachru, B. B. (1997). World Englishes and English-using communities. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 17, 66–87.
Kachru, Y. (1995). Contrastive rhetoric in World Englishes. English Today, 11, 21–31.
Kachru, Y. (1999). Culture, context, and writing. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Culture in second language teaching and learning (pp. 75–89). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kamimura, T., & Oi, K. (1996). A crosscultural analysis of argumentative strategies in student essays. Paper presented at TESOL 96 (Chicago, March 1996). Washington, DC: Education Resources Information Center. Available at http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/detail?accno=ED394324.
Kaplan, R. B. (1966). Cultural thought patterns in intercultural education. Language Learning, 16, 1–20.
Kaplan, R. B. (1967). Contrastive rhetoric and the teaching of composition. TESOL Quarterly, 1, 10–16.
Kaplan, R. B. (1972). The anatomy of rhetoric: Prolegomena to a functional theory of rhetoric. Philadelphia: Center for Curriculum Development.
Kaplan, R. B. (1988). Contrastive rhetoric and second language learning: Notes towards a theory of contrastive rhetoric. In A. C. Purves (Ed.), Writing across languages and cultures (pp. 275–304). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Kaplan, R. B. (1990). Writing in a multilingual/multicultural context: What is contrastive about contrastive rhetoric? The Writing Instructor. Fall, 51-62.
Kaplan, R. B. (2001). Foreword: What in the world is contrastive rhetoric? In C. G. Panetta (Ed.), Contrastive rhetoric revisited and redefined (pp. vii–xx). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kaplan, R.B. (1966). Cultural thought patterns in intercultural education . Language Learning, 16(1-2), 1-20.
Kaplan, R.B. (1987). Cultural thought patterns revisited. In Connor, U. & Kaplan, R.B. (eds) Writing Across Languages: Analysis of L2 Text. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 9-21.
Kim, C.-K. (2009). Personal pronouns in English and Korean texts: a corpus-based study in terms of textual interaction. Journal of Pragmatics, 41, 2086-2099.
Kim, C.-K., & Thompson, G. (2010). Obligation and reader involvement in English and Korean science popularizations: a corpus-based cross-cultural text analysis. Text & Talk, 30, 53-73.
Kincheloe, J. L., & Steinberg, S. R. (1997). Changing multiculturalism. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Kirkpatrick, A. (1997). Traditional Chinese text structures and their influence on the writing in Chinese and English of contemporary mainland Chinese students. Journal of Second Language Writing, 6, 223–244.
Kobayashi, H. (1984). Rhetorical patterns in English and Japanese. TESOL Quarterly, 18, 737–738.
Kobayashi, H., & Rinnert, C. (1996). Factors affecting composition evaluation in an EFL context: Cultural rhetorical pattern and readers’ background. Language Learning, 46, 397–437.
Kobayashi, H., & Rinnert, C. (2002). High school student perceptions of first language literacy instruction: Implications for second language writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 11, 91–116.
Koch, B. (1983). Presentation as proof: The language of Arabic rhetoric. Anthropological Linguistics, 25, 47–60.
Kong, K. (1998). Are simple business request letters really simple? A comparison of Chinese and English business request letters. Text, 18, 103–141.
Koutsantoni, D. (2005). Certainty across cultures: a comparison of the degree of certainty expressed by Greek and English speaking scientific authors. Intercultural Pragmatic, 2, 121-149.
Kowal, K. H. (1998). Rhetorical implications of linguistic relativity: Theory and application to Chinese and Taiwanese interlanguage. New York: Peter Lang.
Kubota, R. (1992). Contrastive rhetoric of Japanese and English: A critical approach. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education/University of Toronto, Canada.
Kubota, R. (1997). Reevaluation of the uniqueness of Japanese written discourse: Implications to Contrastive Rhetoric. Written Communication, 14, 460–480.
Kubota, R. (1998a). An investigation of Japanese and English L1 essay organization: Differences and similarities. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 54, 475–507.
Kubota, R. (1998b). An investigation of L1–L2 transfer in writing among Japanese university students: Implications for contrastive rhetoric. Journal of Second Language Writing, 7, 69–100.
Kubota, R. (1999). Japanese culture constructed by discourses: Implications for applied linguistics research and English language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 33, 9–35.
Kubota, R. (2001). Discursive construction of the images of U.S. classrooms. TESOL Quarterly, 35, 9–38.
Kubota, R. (2002a). Japanese identities in written communication: Politics and discourses. In R. T. Donahue (Ed.), Exploring Japaneseness: On Japanese enactments of culture and consciousness (pp. 293–315). Westport, CT: Ablex.
Kubota, R., & Lehner, A. (2004). Toward critical contrastive rhetoric. Journal of Second Language Writing, 13, 7-27.
Kutz, E., Groden, S., & Zamel, V. (1993). The discovery of competence: Teaching and learning with diverse student writers. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.
Lee, S.H. (2006). The Use of Interpersonal Resources in Argumentative/Persuasive Essays by East-Asian ESL and Australian Tertiary Students. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of Sydney.65
Lee, Y-J. (2006). The process-oriented ESL writing assessment: Promises and challenges. Journal of Second Language Writing, 15(4), 307–330.
Lehner, A. (2001). Bilingual students, writing, and academic discourse: An interpretive inquiry of university writing-across-the-curriculum instructors. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of English as a Second Language, University of Hawai‘i at Manoa. Honolulu, HI.
Lehner, A. (2002). ‘‘So I becoming to find out that writing is enjoyable’’: Fluency acquisition, confidence and motivation development, and the production of academic English in a university foreign language intermediate writing course—a qualitative glance. Tokyo: Sophia University, Center for the Teaching of Foreign Languages in General Education. Lingua, 13.
Leki, I. (1991). Twenty-five years of contrastive rhetoric: text analysis and writing pedagogues. TESOL Quarterly, 25, 123-143.
Leki, I. (1992). Understanding ESL writers: A guide for teachers. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.
Leki, I. (1997). Cross-talk: ESL issues and contrastive rhetoric. In C. Severino, J. C. Guerra, & J. E. Butler (Eds.), Writing in multicultural settings (pp. 234–244). New York, NY: The Modern Language Association of America.
Li, X. (2002). ‘‘Track (dis)connecting’’: Chinese high school and university writing in a time of change. In D. Foster & D. R. Russell (Eds.), Writing and learning in cross-national perspective: Transitions from secondary to higher education (pp. 49–87). Urbana, IL: NCTE and Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Liebman, J.D. (1992). Toward a new contrastive rhetoric: differences between Arabic and Japanese rhetorical instruction. Journal of Second Language Writing, 1, 141-165.
Liu, X. (2010). An investigation of Chinese University EFL learners’ knowledge about writing. In O’Brien, L.J., & Giannoni, D.S. (eds) Language Studies Working Papers. Vol. 2. University of Reading: School of Languages and European Studies, 51-63. Available at http://www.reading.ac.uk/AcaDepts/ll/app_ling/internal/wp.
Loi, C.K., & Evans, M.S. (2010). Cultural differences in the organization of research article introductions from the field of educational psychology: English and Chinese. Journal of Pragmatics, 42, 2814-2825.
Luke, A. (1996). Genre of power? Literacy education and the production of capital. In R. Hasan & G. Williams (Eds.), Literacy in society (pp. 308–338). New York: Addison Wesley Longman.
Mann, W. C., & Thompson, S. A. (1988). Rhetorical structure theory: Toward a functional theory of text organization. Text, 8, 242–281.
Martin, J.R. (2000). Beyond exchange: APPRAISAL systems in English. In Hunston, S., & Thompson, G. (eds) Evaluation in Text: Authorial Stance and the Construction of Discourse. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 142-177.
Martin, J.R., & White, P.R.R. (2005). The Language of Evaluation: Appraisal in English. Longon: Palgrave Macmillan.
Matalene, C. (1985). Contrastive rhetoric: An American writing teacher in China. College English, 47(8), 789 – 808.
Matsuda, P. K. (2001). On the origin of contrastive rhetoric: A response to H.G. Ying. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 11, 257–260.
Matsuda, P. K. (2001). On the origin of contrastive rhetoric: A response to “The Origin of Contrastive Rhetoric Revisited” by H. G. Ying (2000). International
Matsuda, P.K. (1997). Contrastive rhetoric in context: a dynamic model of L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 6, 45-60.
Matsuda, P.K. (2003). Process and post-process: a discursive history. Journal of Second Language Writing, 12, 65-83.
Mauranen, A. (1993). Cultural differences in academic rhetoric. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Peter Lang.
May, S. (1999). Critical multiculturalism and cultural difference: Avoiding essentialism. In S. May (Ed.), Critical multiculturalism: Rethinking multicultural and antiracist education (pp. 11–41). London: Falmer Press.
Maynard, S. (1996). Presentation of one’s view in Japanese newspaper columns: Commentary strategies and sequencing. Text, 16, 391–421.
McCagg, P. (1996). If you can lead a horse to water, you don’t have to make it drink: Some comments on reader and writer responsibilities. Multilingua, 15, 239–256.
McKay, S. (2002). Teaching English as an international language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Megginson, D. (1996). The Thesis Statement. The University of Ottawa, Writing Centre. Retrieved December 18, 2007, from http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/thstatmt.html.
Mohan, B., & Lo, W. (1985). Academic writing and Chinese students: Transfer and developmental factors. TESOL Quarterly, 19, 515–534.
Mohanty, C. (1988). Under Western eyes: Feminist scholarship and colonial discourses. Feminist Review, 30, 61–88.
Monroy-Casas, R. (2008). Linearity in language: rhetorical-discursive preferences in English and Spanish in the light of Kaplan’s model. International Journal of English Studies, 8, 173-189.
Montano-Harmon, M.R. (1991). Discourse features of written Mexican Spanish: Current research in contrastive rhetoric and its implications. Hispania, 74, 417–425.
Moran, C. (1991). We write, but do we read? Computers and Composition, 8(3), 51-61.
Moreno, A.I. (1997). Genre constraints across languages: causal metatext in Spanish and English RAs. English for Specific Purposes, 16, 161-179.
Moreno, A.I. (2004). Retrospective labeling in premise-conclusion metatext: an English-Spanish contrastive study of research articles on business and economics. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 3, 321-339.
Nelson, C. (1999). Sexual identities in ESL: Queer theory and classroom inquiry. TESOL Quarterly, 33, 371–391.
Norton, B. (2000). Identity and language learning: Gender, ethnicity and educational change. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education Limited.
O’Brien, L.J., & Giannoni, D.S. (eds) Language Studies Working Papers. Vol. 1. University of Reading: School of Languages and European Studies, 3-15. Available at http://www.reading.ac.uk/AcaDepts/ll/app_ling/ internal/wp.
Odlin, T. (1989). Language Transfer: Cross-Linguistic Influence in Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ostler, S. E. (1997). Contrastive Rhetoric: Myths, facts and pedagogy. Paper presented at the TESOL Conference, Chicago, IL.
P., Passeron, J.-C., & Martin, M. (1994). Academic discourse: Linguistic misunderstandings and professorial power. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Panetta, C. G. (Ed.). (2001). Contrastive rhetoric revisited and redefined. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Pennycook, A. (1998). English and the discourses of colonialism. New York/London: Routledge.
Pennycook, A. (2001). Critical applied linguistics: A critical introduction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Phung, B. (2006). A Contrastive Rhetorical Study of Chinese and Mexican Perceptions of Their Native Writing Instruction and Its Implications for ESL Teaching and Learning. Unpublished PhD thesis. Arizona State University.
Purves, A. C. (1986). Rhetorical communities, the international student, and basic writing. Journal of Basic Writing, 5, 38–51.
Purves, A. C. (1988). Introduction. In A. C. Purves (Ed.), Writing across languages and cultures (pp. 9–21). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Purves, A. C., & Purves, W. C. (1986). Viewpoints: Cultures, text models, and the activity of writing. Research in the Teaching of English, 20, 174–197.
Quintero, E. (2002). A problem-posing approach to using native language writing in English literacy instruction. In S. Ransdell & M.-L. Barbier (Eds.), New directions for research in L2 writing (pp. 231–244). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Reid, J. (1984). ESL composition: The linear product of American thought. College Composition and Communication, 35, 449–452.
Reid, J. (1989). English as second language composition in higher education: The expectations of the academic audience. In D. M. Johnson & D. H. Roen (Eds.), Richness in writing: Empowering ESL students (pp. 220–234). New York & London: Longman.
Reid, J. (1996). U.S. academic readers, ESL writers, and second sentences. Journal of Second Language Writing, 5, 129–161.
Rinnert, C., & Kobayashi, H. (2001). Differing perceptions of EFL writing among readers in Japan. The Modern Language Journal, 85, 189–209.
Rose, M. (1989). Lives on the boundary: A moving account of the struggles and achievements of America’s educational underclass. New York, NY: Penguin Books.
Sa’adeddin, M. A. M. (1989). Text development and Arabic-English negative interference. Applied Linguistics, 10, 36–51.
Santos, T. (1988). Professors’ reactions to the academic writing of nonnative-speaking students. TESOL Quarterly, 22(1), 69-88.
Sasaki, M., & Hirose, K. (1996). Explanatory variables for EFL students’ expository writing. Language Learning, 46, 137–174.
Scarcella, R. (1984). How writers orient their readers to expository essays: A comparative study of native and non-native English writers. TESOL Quarterly, 18(4), 671-688.
Schneider, M. L., & Fujishima, N. K. (1995). When practice doesn’t make perfect: The case of a graduate ESL student. In D.Belcher, & G. Braine (Eds.), Academic writing in a second language: Essays on research & pedagogy (pp. 231-265). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Schultz, E. A. (1990). Dialogue at the margins: Whorf, Bakhtin, and linguistic relativity. Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press.
Scollon, R. (1997). Contrastive rhetoric, contrastive poetics, or perhaps something else? TESOL Quarterly, 31, 352-358.
Shen, F. (1989). The classroom and the wider culture: Identity as a key to learning English composition. College Composition and Communication, 40(4), 459-466.
Shen, S., & Yao, H. (1999). The impact of Chinese culture on Chinese learners’ use of English writing. Proceedings of the 1999 International Symposium on Language Teaching Beijing-Kunming. Beijing: Foreign Language University Press.
Shi, L. (2002). How Western-trained Chinese TESOL professionals publish in their home environment. TESOL Quarterly, 36, 625–634.
Simpson, J. M. (2000). Topical structure analysis of academic paragraphs in English and Spanish. Journal of Second Language Writing, 9, 293–309.
Spack, R. (1997). The rhetorical construction of multilingual students. TESOL Quarterly, 31, 765–774.
Stern, H. H. (1992). Issues and options in language teaching. Oxford: Oxford Press.
Swales, J.M. (1990). Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Taylor, G., & Chen, T. (1991). Linguistic, cultural, and subcultural issues in contrastive discourse analysis: Anglo-American and Chinese scientific texts. Applied Linguistics, 12, 319–336.
Tirkkonen-Condit, S. (1996). Explicitness vs. implicitness of argumentation: an intercultural comparison. Multilingua, 15, 257-274.
Tsao, F. (1983). Linguistics and written discourse in particular languages: Contrastive studies: English and Chinese. In R.B. Kaplan (Ed.), Annual review of Applied Linguistics, 3 (pp. 99-117). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Uysal, H.H. (2008). Tracing the culture behind writing: rhetorical patterns and bidirectional transfer in L1 and L2 essays of Turkish writers in relation to educational context. Journal of Second Language Writing, 17, 183-207.
Victori, M. (1999). An analysis of writing knowledge in EFL composing: a case study of two effective and two less effective writers. System, 27, 537-555.
Wada, K. (1999). Eigo-ka ni okeru kokusai rikai kyoˆiku [Teaching international understanding in teaching English]. Eigo Koˆiku, Bessatsu, 48(3) (The English Teachers’ Magazine: Special Issue).
Walsh, C. E. (Ed.). (1991). Literacy as praxis: Culture, language, and pedagogy. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Wang, W. (2006). Newspaper Commentaries on Terrorism in China and Australia: A Contrastive Genre Study. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis. University of Sydney.
Warschauer, M. (2002). Networking into academic discourse. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 1(1), 45–58.
Weaver, C. (1994). Reading process and practice: From sociolinguistics to whole language (2nd ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Weedon, C. (1987). Feminist practice & poststructuralist theory. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Weedon, C. (1999). Feminism, theory and the politics of difference. Oxford: Blackwell.
Weir, C. (1988). Academic writing – Can we please all the people all the time? In P. C. Robinson (Ed.), Academic writing: Process and product. ELT Documents, 129.
White, R. (2001). Closing the gap between intercultural and business communication skills. University of Reading, Department of Applied Linguistics. Retrieved December 18, 2007, from http://www.rdg.ac.uk/app_ling/closing.htm.
Willinsky, J. (1998). Learning to divide the world: Education at empire’s end. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Wu, S.-Y., & Rubin, D.L. (2000). Evaluating the impact of collectivism and individualism on argumentative writing by Chinese and North American college students. Research in the Teaching of English, 35, 148-178.
Ying, H. G. (2000). The origin of contrastive rhetoric revisited. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 10, 259–268.
Ying, H. G. (2001). On the origins of contrastive rhetoric: A reply to Matsuda. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 11, 261–266.
Young, L. W. L. (1994). Crosstalk and culture in Sino-American communication. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Zainuddin, H., & Moor, R.A. (2003). Audience awareness in L1 and L2 composing of bilingual writers. TESLEJ, 7, A-2.
Zamel, V. (1997). Toward a model of transculturation. TESOL Quarterly, 31, 341–352
Word document at: